artikel perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan

Ideally history is a record of all the series of events that have occurred, which serves as a revealer of all things in accordance with the fact that there is no distortion at all, but in reality he is only partially revealed the sequence of events and can not be separated entirely from the engineering that is usually done by the political authorities . Although the phenomenon of this kind ever happened, but it can not be regarded as a trivial issue even got straightened out, because it involves and affects the lives of the next generation as the next historical actor. Moreover, history is the history of science is an important factor in human life. Thus, the need for earnest effort and moral responsibility and academic exposure history.
Before exposing the historical development of science, the authors have revealed a glimpse of the difference between knowledge and science in order not to get stuck on a misunderstanding about both, so that the reader can easily understand and correct what is meant by the historical development of science in this paper. Science is part of the classified knowledge, tersistem, and measurable, and can be verified empirically. Meanwhile, the overall knowledge is knowledge that has not been finalized, both the metaphysical and physical. It can also be said that knowledge is information in the form of common sense, while science was part higher than that because it has certain methods and mechanisms. So the more specialized knowledge than knowledge, but by no means all of science is knowledge.
A brief description of the above leads us to the conclusion that what is meant by knowledge here is not scientific knowledge. Science diverse. Jasin Maskoeri divide science into three broad categories. First, the Social Sciences include psychology, education, anthropology, ethnology, history, economics, and sociology. Secondly, the Natural Sciences which includes physics, chemistry, and biology (botany, zoology, morphology, anatomy, physiology, cytology, histology, and paleontology). Third, Earth and Space Science including geology (petrology, volcanology, and mineralogy), astronomy, and geography (physiography and geography biology). Because of the wide scope of knowledge, the authors focus only on the history of some of the science of the times recorded by the historical literature that exists and mention some figures behind the discovery and development of scientific theory.

Science Ancient Times
Broadly speaking, Proverbs Bakhtiar periodeisasi divide the history of science into four periods: in ancient Greece, the Islamic era, the Renaissance and the modern era, and the contemporary era. Periodeisasi contains three possibilities. First, denying any prior knowledge tersistem ancient Greece. Secondly, the absence of historical data on the science before the time of ancient Greece are up to us. Third, Bakhtiar deliberately not revealed it in his book. If the first possibility occurs, then the information of the religious texts of the names that Adam knew, for instance, does not include science but just mere knowledge. If the second possibility is true, then it does not mean knowledge tersistem just found and started in ancient Greece, but he was there just before the information is not up to us. If the possibility of a third force, the writer needs to disclose if only briefly due to the limited resources available to the authors.
According to George J. Mouly, beginning science can disusur until the beginning of man. There is no doubt that early humans had found some empirical relationships that allow them to understand the state of the world. The period of early humans, also known as pre-history. According Soetriono and SDRM Hanafie Rita, his history began about 15,000 to 600 BCE. At this time humans developed advanced knowledge. They have been known to read, write, and count. Their culture began to flourish in certain places, the Egyptians in Africa, Sumeria, Babylon, Nineveh, and China in Asia, the Maya and the Inca in Central America. They’ve been able to count and recognize numbers. Although somewhat different from the opinion, Muhammad Husain Haekal (1888-1956) found more specifically that the source of civilization dating back more than six thousand years ago (meaning around 4000 BC) was Egypt. Period before it put him into the category of pre-history. Therefore, it is very difficult going through to a scientific discovery.
Despite the differences of opinion about the beginning of the pre-historical and historical times, it can be concluded that science was born as a human on earth just naming sciences that usually comes later. Emphasis on usability and applications tend to take precedence over its name. This theory applies in general to some – not to say all-disciplines from generation to generation. Armed with brains, experience, and observations of natural phenomena, early humans, of course, has a set of knowledge that can help them through life. A set of knowledge is the longer will be more organized because this is the basic characteristic of science. If we deny the existence of certain knowledge that they have, then we will be difficult to answer the question: is it possible they can survive for many years without any stock?
Furthermore Mouly said the evidence in order to claim the following: early efforts in the field of science that are recorded in the pages of history by the Egyptians, where the Nile floods that occur each year could contribute to the development of the system almanac, geometry, and survey activities . This success was followed by the Babylonians and Hindus who provide valuable contributions despite not seinsentif activities Egyptians. After that came the Greeks who focuses on the organization of science in which they not only contribute to the development of the science of astronomy, medicine, and classification systems of Aristotle, but also syllogism is the basis for the description of the deductively human experiences.
Ancient Egypt, for example, bequeathed relics of high quality such as the pyramids, temples, and the city penatanan system. Relics could not exist without the knowledge that they have. The process of building a towering pyramid made up of large boulders option can not be separated from mathematics and architecture. Similarly, the development process of their magnificent temples. Meanwhile, the system architecture and the arrangement of the city require administration. In other words, the historical relics indicate a certain sciences that they have so that they can make their dreams come true. According Haekal, Egypt was the center of the most prominent first brought civilization to the Greek or Roman.
Meanwhile, according to Betrand Russell, during the Babylonian born a few things that belong to science: the division of the day into twenty-four hours, the circle into 360 degrees, allowing the discovery of eclipse cycle of lunar eclipses can be predicted accurately and solar eclipses with some estimates. This Babylonian knowledge into the hands of Thales, the Greek philosophers.

Science Period of Ancient Greece
Is identical with the ancient Greek philosophy. When the Greek word is mentioned, then that terbesit enthusiasts in mind certainly is scholarly study of philosophy. In fact, in terms of a simple philosophy existed long before the classical Greek philosophers pursue and develop. Philosophy in their hands becomes something very valuable for the development of science in later generations. He is like opening the doors of a variety of disciplines that influence felt until now. So naturally when later generations feel indebted to him, as well as Muslims in the Middle Ages AD even today. Without reviewing and developing the heritage of Greek philosophy was difficult for Muslims at that time embracing golden age. Likewise, Westerners without reviewing the development of Greek philosophy developed by the Muslims it was difficult for them to rebuild their civilization ever experienced periods of darkness become very advanced and ahead of other major civilizations as it is today.
Period of Greek philosophy is an extremely important period in the history of human civilization since at this time there is a change of mindset human being logosentris mitosentris. Of the process is then developed from the womb of philosophy of science that eventually we enjoy in the form of technology. Therefore, the period of the development of Greek philosophy is an entry point to enter a new civilization of mankind. This is the starting point for researching human use ratio and also questioned her nature and the universe.
The first natural philosophers who study the origin of nature is Thales (624-546 BC), after which Anaximandros (610-540 BC), Heraklitos (540-480 BC), Parmenides (515-440 BC) and Pythagoras (580 – 500). Thales, dubbed the father of philosophy, argues that nature is the origin of water. According Anaximandros first substance that is eternal, infinite, and include everything called apeiron, not water or soil. Heraklitos see the universe is always in a state of change. For him the fundamental nature of the universe is not the material, but the actors and the cause of fire. Contrary to Heraklitos, Parmenides found that the reality is a unified whole, do not move and do not change. Pythagoras found that the number is a key element of nature and become the size. The elements that number is even and odd, finite and infinite. Pythagoras is huge merit in the development of science, particularly mathematics and the natural sciences. Science developed later today relies heavily on mathematical approach. So every philosopher has a different view of the intricacies of the universe. Dissent is not necessarily negative, but it is precisely a wealth of scientific treasures. Evidently some of the views they inspire later generations.
After they later appeared several Sophist philosopher as a reaction to their dissatisfaction with the response of the natural philosophers and divert them from the realm of research to humans. For them, man is the measure of truth as expressed by Protagoras (481-411 BC), their main character. This view is the forerunner of humanism. According to him, the truth is subjective and relative. As a result, there can be no absolute measure in ethics, metaphysics, and religion. Even he did not consider the mathematical theory has absolute truth. In addition there Gorgias Protagoras (483-375 BC). According to him, sensing can not be trusted. He is the source of illusion. Intellect is also not able to convince us about the universe because our minds have been deceived by the dilemma of subjectivity. The positive influence of the sophist movement just feels because they evoke the spirit of philosophizing. They do not give the final answer on ethics, religion, and metaphysics.
The views of philosophers such Sophist later refuted by philosophers such as Socrates (470-399 BC), Plato (429-347 BC) and Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to them, there is an objective truth that depend on humans. Socrates proves the existence of objective truth by using methods that are practical and run through conversations. According to him, the universal truth can be found. For Plato, the essence has a reality that exists in nature idea. General truth there is not a far-fetched even exist in nature idea. Classical Greek philosophy had its peak in the hands of Aristotle. He is the philosopher who first split in the theoretical philosophy (logic, metaphysics, and physics) and practical (ethics, economics, and politics). The division of science which is the science of classification guidelines for later in the day. He is considered the father of the science of being able to lay the foundations of a systematic and scientific method. For such pervasiveness and duration of effect of the teachings of Plato and Aristotle, AN Whitehead notes that the whole philosophy of life after they actually are mere proposals against their teachings. Opinion Whitehead is not entirely true because Muslims, for example, in addition to developing their philosophy, they are also innovating in the Greek philosophical problems that have characteristics of Islam.

Conclusion

The table above does not include all science, because according Jujun Suriasumantri, science today has grown to about 650 branches. In addition to the existing empowerment among the natural sciences or natural sciences with social sciences, also known as the distinction of science and applied science. The rapid advancement of science, according to Chalmers, is expected since 400 years ago, that since Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and the more obvious since Francis Bacon in the 15th century and 16 as a philosopher of science that suggests the need for a method of studying the experience . Bacon emphasized that intensive experiments and observations are the foundation for the development of science. [39]
The facts above menunukkan that the development of science can not be separated from the large curiosity accompanied by efforts earnest through reasoning, experimentation, refinement, and high risk-taking resulting in discoveries that benefit a generation and a consideration of reference for the next generation to correct, enhance, develop, and further discoveries. Factors which later became boosters for the rapid development of the science behind the rapid discoveries in the field of technology that sometimes make some people complacent therefore so do not realize that some of the science being abused can be a serious threat to their lives.
An important point to note here is the rapid development of science must be balanced with the moral-spiritual human development, because as we know, the development of science in addition to have a positive impact, it is also a negative impact on human life. Positive impact is further facilitate human life, while the negative effects are increasingly threatening their lives. Therefore, in order that the order of human life in this world remain sustainable, it must be accompanied by the development of the science of moral-spiritual development of man himself. The development of science without moral-spiritual development can be a threat to human life as we can feel lately in the form of misuse of nuclear technology. Similarly, the moral-spiritual development without the accompaniment of the development of science can make some people less creative as happened in Christian Europe in the dark ages. In other words, between the brain and the liver should get an equal share of attention. History has proved it. History is a discipline that has a higher validity of truth that deserve to be material to take lessons (‘ibrah)

sumber : http://irwan-cahyadi.blogspot.com/2012/06/sejarah-dan-perkembangan-ilmu.html

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